2 thoughts on “Overview of the Republic of Chadling”

  1. Chad
    Edit
    Chad (or translated Chad, Arabic: تشاد, French: TChad), full name of the Republic of China, is a inland country in central Africa, Libya in the north, Sudan in the east, south, south, south, south, south, south, south, south, south, south, south, south, south It is connected to China -Africa Republic, and the southwest is adjacent to Cameroon and Nigeria, and the west and Niger are junction.
    Chaded into three major geographical areas: the desert areas in the north, belonging to the tropical desert climate; the dry Sahler area in the middle of the central part is a tropical grassland climate; Essence
    The country is named after Lake Chad. The highest domestic peak in China is the Cusai Mountain in Sahara, and the capital and the largest city are Enjamina.
    has more than 200 nationalities in Chad. French and Arabic are official languages, and Islam is the most religious religion.
    The country and animal husbandry countries, the economy is backward, is one of the most developed countries in the world. After the governance of Daiby, accept the economic structure adjustment plan of the International Monetary Fund, focusing on rectify state -owned enterprises and public office departments such as cotton companies; encourage private investment and development of small and small enterprises; announce the implementation of corporate privatization and free economy; crack down on smuggling, ensure taxes, guarantee taxes ; Actively strive for international assistance and encourage foreign investment
    The Chinese name

    African
    capital
    Enja Menea
    major cities
    Eti, Marcelia, etc. Day
    National anthem
    “The People’s Civil”
    National code
    TCD
    official language
    French, Arabic

    time zone
    utc 1
    political system
    half presidential Republican system
    National leaders
    n14 million (2015) [1]
    Popularity density
    8.0 people/square kilometers (2009)
    major ethnic groups
    R n The main religion
    is Islam, Christianity, primitive religion
    land area
    1284000 square kilometers
    GDP total
    10.889 billion US dollars (2015, international exchange rate) [1) [1) [1) ]
    The per capita GDP
    778 USD (2015, international exchange rate)
    Catalog
    1 History
    2 geography n ▪ Location domain n ▪ Terrain
    ▪ Climate
    ▪ Hydrological
    3 Administrative Chief Plan
    ▪ Zone Plan
    4 Population Nations
    ▪ Population n ▪ Nation n5 countries Symbol
    ▪ national name
    ▪ national flag
    ▪ national emblem n ▪ national anthem n ▪ grid words
    6 politics n ▪ government n ▪ constitution r r r r
    ▪ Council
    ▪ Judicial
    ▪ Government
    ▪ Political Party
    ▪ Politics n7 military n ▪ defense n ▪ military power n8 diplomacy
    ▪ Foreign policy
    ▪ Foreign relations
    9 Economy
    ▪ Overview
    ▪ R n ▪ Nong and animal husbandry n ▪ Service industry
    ▪ Financial Finance
    ▪ Foreign Trade
    ▪ Foreign assistance
    ▪ Foreign Capital
    ▪ People Life
    10 Culture n ▪ Language n ▪ religion r
    ▪ holiday
    ▪ custom
    ▪ folk customs
    11 society
    ▪ education
    ▪ Sports
    ▪ Medical
    ▪ communication
    ▪ Media
    ▪ Music
    ▪ Literature
    ▪ movie n12 traffic n ▪ rail r r r r r r
    ▪ Highway
    ▪ Water Transport
    ▪ Air Transport
    13 Tourism

    History
    Edit
    In BC, the ecological environment in northern Chadings It is beneficial to human beings. This has made the region’s population grow strongly during this period. Some of the important archaeological discoveries (mainly located in Borku-Ensidy Tisbas) can be traced back to 2000 BC. The history of the agricultural population on the Chad Basin has been settled for more than two thousand years. This area has long been the center of various civilized activities. According to the unearthed handicrafts and oral historical records, the earliest in these civilizations was the Sao civilization. From the 9th to the 10th century, the Saobans established the first and the longest empire of the country, the longest empire of the Sahara region of Chad. The 16th century, the kingdom of Barmir and the kingdom of Wudai, which appeared in the 16th century, appeared. Since then, the three countries have ended up. The Ganem Empire and the subsequent regime were controlled based on the cross -Sahara trading channel through the area. Except for snatching slaves, the control of these regimes has not extended to the grassland in the south. From 1883 to 1893, the kingdoms were conquered by the Sudan Rabi Zubaier.
    In AD 7000 BC, a large number of people have lived in Chad, until at the end of the first millennium BC, a series of regimes emerged and died in the Sahara area in Chad. route. Chad was occupied by France in 1920 and became part of French equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad was independent of France under Franco Timbabaya, but Timbarbaya’s policy caused dissatisfaction in the northern Muslim region and eventually triggered a long -term civil war in 1965. In 1979, the anti -government armed forces captured Enjamener and ended the rule of the southern regime. However, the internal crickets occurred between the anti -government armed commanders. As a result, Hussein Habre won the battle and served as the president, but was overthrown by his general Idris Daiby in 1990. Sudan’s Darfur conflict broke out on the Chading border, which made the district unstable.
    Proted in Cusseli on April 22, 1900, after defeating and killing Rabich Zubael (pictured), France cleared the main obstacles to colonial in Chad.
    Under the expansion of France, French colonists established the “Militaire des Pays ET TChad” in 1900. Until 1920, France had obtained the control of Chad nationwide. Chad in the colonial period did not have a policy of unified territory, and the modernization process was slow. The French mainly regarded the secondary source of the low -level labor and cotton. In 1929, France began to produce cotton in large -scale locally. The Charian colonial government has a serious insufficient manpower and needs to rely on the worst of officials from France. Only the southern management is well managed in Chad, and France’s control of the north and the east is unknown. The neglect of the colonial government has made the educational system not developed for a long time. After the Second World War, France listed Chad as overseas, and the residents of the territory had the right to elect the representatives of the French National Parliament and a member of the Chad of the Chad. The largest party at the time was the Chad Progressive Party in the south of the region. On August 11, 1960, Chad was independent from France under Franco Timbarbaya, and Timbarbaya was the first president.
    Timbarbayaya banned the opposition party two years later and implemented a one -party system. His dictatorship and inefficient management have exacerbated conflicts between races. In 1965, Muslim launched a civil war. Timbarbay was killed in a military coup launched by Felix Murom in 1975, but the wave of violence did not calm down. In 1979, the anti -government armed forces occupied Enjamona, and Marum fell. Several armed organizations (mainly anti -government armed forces from the north) compete for each other. The division of Chad has collapsed France’s domestic forces. Libya, the northern neighbors, has filled the position of France and involved in the Civil War in Chad to support the northern rebels. In 1983, the rebels attacked. In August of the same year, France sent troops to the Chad to support the Chad of the Chad. Only the line of defense was established in central Chad, and the war situation stabilized. The President Hussein Habre, who was supported by France, successfully called on domestic people in Chad and returned the Libyan army in 1987.
    Habre, which later consolidated the regime by corruption and violence, under his rule, it estimated that about 40,000 people were killed. Habre’s policy tends to his own race, Daza, and discriminates against other previous Zaga -all allies. His general Idris Daiby overturned him in 1990.
    The tried to appease anti -government forces and restored the multi -party system. Chad passed the new constitution through referendum in 1996. In the same year, Daibi won the presidential election and was re -elected five years later. In 2003, Chad began to mine oil, but later the second Civil War broke out. Daiby held a referendum in 2005 to decide whether to cancel the term of president’s term, which triggered the strong opposition of the opposition party and the commotion in the entire society. In 2006, Daibi was re -elected for the second time as president in the absence of the opposition party. At the same time, the racial conflict in eastern Chad, and the United Nations Refugee Agency warned that Chad may have a racial slaughter similar to Darfur.

    Geographical
    Edit

    The location domain

    Thenian area is 1284,000 square kilometers. It is the 21st country in the world, smaller than Peru, and slightly larger than South Africa. Chad is located in the northern part of Africa, 8 and 24 degrees north latitude, 14 and 24 degrees east longitude, and the north is connected to Teribia, the sulture is connected in the east, the Central African Republic is connected in the south, the southwest, Cameroon and Nigeria are neighbors. The capital Enja Meina is 1,600 kilometers away from the most adjacent seaport. Because Chad is far away from the ocean and most of the land is a desert climate, it is also known as the “heart of Africa death”. [2]

    otitions
    The nationwide divided into three major geographical areas: the northern region belongs to the Sahara desert or semi -desert, accounting for 1/3 of the country, and the east is the plateau area; The more fertile grassland areas in the Sahler area and south. Tiber in the northwest increases the average an average of 2000 meters above sea level. The Cushan Mountains is 3415 meters above sea level, and is the highest peak of the country and central Africa. [3]

    The climate
    This in the north belongs to the desert or semi -desert climate, the central part is the Sahere tropical grassland climate, and the south belongs to the tropical rare tree grassland climate. Except for the northern plateau mountains, the average annual temperature of most areas is above 27 ° C, and the north can reach 29 ° C. [4]

    The a hydrology
    The country’s name is derived from Lake Chad. The lake has an area of ​​330,000 square kilometers 7000 years ago, but it has been reduced to 17,806 square kilometers in the 21st century. Its area has a great impact. Lake Chad is the second largest wetland in Africa. Located at Tiber’s raising 3,414 meters high, it is the highest mountain peak in Chad to the Sahara area. The main rivers of Chaded are the Sali River, the Loshi River, and their tributaries (from the southeast of the southeast grassland to Lake Chad).

    A administrative divisions
    In the editor

    The local administrative unit of Chad is divided into four levels: region, provincial (), and town (Commune) and village (Rurale). In 2000, it was divided into 28 provinces (), 107 states, 470 districts, and 44 traditional territories. In October 2002, the country was re -divided into 18 regions (including Enja Menea), and 57 provincial units (including the capital) were under its jurisdiction. Starting in March 2008, the country is divided into 22 regions (including Enja Menea), and 57 provincial units (including capital areas) have underwent under its jurisdiction. There are more than 500 county -level administrative units in each province.

    In province 1996.4

    c1993.4.8

    area (KM2)
    n
    ncc19933

    BATHA EST

    288458
    n88800
    noum-hadjer

    Xibata Batha OUEST

    Ati

    Biltine

    184807
    46850
    46850

    Biltine

    Bourkou

    73185
    n600350
    n method method Yaya

    Enshdi ennedi

    fada
    n

    Dabababa

    720941

    82910 r
    bokoro
    n
    Baguirmi

    massenya

    n Hadjer Lamis

    massaguet
    n
    Guéra

    306253

    58950

    Monto Mongo
    r

    279927

    114520

    moussoro
    n
    Ghanim Kanem

    Lac

    252932

    22320
    n R n Logone

    455489

    8695

    Moundou

    99530
    n n Dongligan Logone Oriental

    441064
    28035 n
    Doba

    Ramshan Monts de Lam

    Mbokoum

    Kabia n Kabia n R n
    825158

    30105

    gounou-gaya

    n Bongor

    Mayo-Dala

    pala
    n
    n
    738595

    45180

    kyabe

    n

    75496

    Mandoel

    koumra

    Waddi

    543900

    76240

    Abéché

    54628
    n

    Ason plus assongha

    adre

    n Salamat

    184403

    63000

    AM Timan

    Tandjile eSt

    453854

    18045

    Roy Laï

    n n TANDJILE OUEST

    KELO
    31319 n31319

    Enjameine NDJAMENA

    530965

    Mi

    . Enjameine NDJAMENA

    530965

    Chad

    6279931
    1284000 r

    Enjamener
    ndjamena

    It was changed to the current name on September 5th. 10.92 million people (2012). The highest temperature is 42 4c (April) and a minimum of 14˚C (December). [3]

    Popularity nation
    Edit

    Population
    year). The urban population is 25%and the rural population is 74.8%. 47.3%of the population is less than 15 years old, the birth rate is 42.35 per 1,000, the mortality rate is 16.69, and the per capita life expectancy is 47.2 years. The population density of Borku-Enshddi Tisbas (located in the Sahara area) is 0.1 per square kilometer, while the population density of Slogon is per square kilometer 52.4 people per square kilometer. , Enja Merner’s population density is higher. About half of the country’s population ranks one -fifth of the southern areas.

    The nation
    The 256 ethnic groups in Chad. The northern, central and eastern residents are Berbell, Wadai, Tupu, Bagel Mi, etc. of the Arabian descent, accounting for about 45%of the national population; residents in the south and southwest are mainly the Salan. , Malaysia, Koto, Mongolian, etc., accounting for about 55%of the national population. [5]

    National symbol
    Edit

    country name
    ) Referred to as Chad. [6]

    The national flag
    The Charian national flag is rectangular, and the ratio of length to width is 3: 2. The flag surface consists of three parallel long vertical squares. From left to right are blue, yellow, and red. Blue symbolizes the blue sky, hope and life, and also represents the south of the country; the yellow symbolizes the sun, and the north of the country; the red symbolic progress, unity, and wish to dedicate their own country to the motherland. The Charliers’ flag is almost the same as the Romanian flag. The blue part is slightly deeper. [6]

    National emblem
    The national emblem was opened in 1975. The shield of the center is made of yellow and blue wave
    The national emblem of Chad n The main natural characteristics are the beautiful and tranquil Lake, which is rich in mineral resources. A yellow goat is painted on the left side of the shield, indicating that Chad is a country that is dominated by animal husbandry; the lion on the right side represents local unique wild animals. A round of red jumping out of the shield emblem, illuminating the road of Chad, indicating that the new country will definitely be flourishing and prosperous. The yellow trim of the shield base reads the profile of the Chad in love: “unity, labor, and progress.” [6]

    The national anthem

    The multi -party system of the State of the Chadings, in early 1993, the highest national conference participated in various parties to establish a transition mechanism. In March 1996, a new constitution was held. The presidential election was held in June, and the Daibi won. A legislative election was held in March 1997, and Ai Zhengyun won the majority of parliaments. Daibi Government’s military forces cleared the domestic anti -government armed forces. On the one hand, political peace talks alleviated contradictions, consolidated the regime, and once achieved significant results. In May 2001 and April 2002, Daibi and Ai Zhengyun won the presidential election and legislative elections again. In 2003, the anti -government armed forces in the territory were basically subsided. Since 2005, there have been many attempt coup. The anti -government armed ash was re -burns and developed rapidly. In May 2006, the presidential election was held at first, and Daibi won the election with the collective resistance of the opposition party. In December, one of the main anti -government armed forces, the “change and combined line”, returned to the government. In August 2007, most Presidents such as Ai Zhengyun sent political parties with 18 opposition parties signed a political agreement to announce the realization of reconciliation. In October, the government signed a peace agreement with four major anti -government armed forces including the “Fight for Democracy and Development” (UFDD “(UFDD). In November, the conflict between the two sides resurrected. At the end of January 2008, the anti -government armed forces launched an offensive since the eastern, and once occupied most of the urban areas of Enshimena, the capital. At first glance, the government forces recaptured the capital and the national control of the country, and the anti -government armed forces returned the base in the junction of the Sudan. In January 2009, 8 major anti -government armed forces formed the “Resistance Alliance” of the Anti -Government Armed Forces, and elected Timane Erdimi (President -in -law’s nephew) as a co -leader. On May 6th, hundreds of pilot trucks in the “Resistance Alliance” crossed the Chad and Sudan border into Chazu, and fought against government forces. On the 10th, the government’s military announced that it had achieved a decisive victory and wiped out more than 200 enemies. Since then, the domestic government bureau has gradually stabilized. In February and April 2011, parliamentary and presidential elections were held at first. The ruling party’s patriotism rescue campaign won the absolute majority of the parliament.

    Constitution
    The first constitution after independence was formulated in April 1962. On April 4, 1993, the Chad of the Supreme National Conference of Chad passed the “Charter of the Transition period” as a temporary constitution during the transition period. On March 31, 1996, a referee was held to pass the new constitution. The constitution stipulates that Chad is an independent, secular, socialized, unified, and inseparable sovereignty country based on the principles of democracy, the rule of law and fairness based on the principles of democracy, the rule of law, and fairness. The administrative power is jointly exercised by the president and the government. President is the head of state and is responsible for ensuring the implementation of the Constitution. The president is generated by the direct election, with a term of 5 years and can be re -elected for two sessions. At the same time, if the members of the National Assembly pass through the two -thirds of the members of the National Assembly, the Constitution can be modified. The president appointed the Prime Minister and appointed a government member according to the Prime Minister’s suggestion. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and is responsible for the national policy approved by the executive minister. The parliament is composed of the National Assembly and the Senate to exercise legislative power. In June 2005, at first glance, the amendment to the Constitution was held to cancel the restrictions on the number and age of the president’s re -election, and changed the “Senate” to the “Economic, Social and Cultural Council” appointed by the president. [5]

    The parliamentary
    The national parliament is the highest legislative agency, with a total of 188 seats, with a term of five years. This year’s National Parliament was born in February 2011, the Speaker Haroun Kabadi, General Secretary Ai Yongyun. The seats occupied by each party in the National Assembly are as follows: 118 seats in love for Zheng Yin, fighting for 9 seats for democratic progress, 4 seats for the Republican Action Front, striving for 10 seats for the development and innovation of the national alliances, and 4 seats for the National Alliance Viva. Strive for 8 seats for innovation and democratic alliances, 8 National Democratic Alliances in Chad, and 27 other parties. [5]

    The judicial
    The constitution stipulates that the judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court, Appeal Court, the preliminary trial court, and the law and order referee. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial agency, including the judicial court, the administrative court, and the financial court. It is composed of 16 members. The dean is appointed by the president of the President of the President after soliciting the Senate Council. The Supreme Court judge implemented a lifelong system. In addition, there is a constitutional committee, which is responsible for reviewing the law and agreement, and supervise, trial, announce the election and citizen voting results. The Special Supreme Court is responsible for trial presidents, members of the government, and their coexistence cases.

    The government
    On February 19, 2013, the President of the Daibi appointed the new government. A total of 43 people in this government.
    ABDOULAYE SABRE FADOUL

    In internal affairs and Maye) r r
    . In June 2001, May 2006, and April 2011, he won the third degree. Believe in Islam. Married, there are multiple children.
    Prime Minister Joseph Dadnadji. Born in 1954. On January 21, 2013, Dadnadji Joseph was appointed Prime Minister, Dadnadji Joseph.

  2. Excerpted from an encyclopedia:
    Chad (or translated Chad, Arabic: تشاد Tšād; French: TCHAD I/ˈTʃæD/), the entire name of the Republic of China, is a inland country in central Africa, north connected with Teribia, East East, East It is connected to the Sudan, the south is connected to the Central African Republic, the southwest is neighbor with Cameroon and Nigeria, and the west and Niger are border. Because Chad is located in the center of Africa, away from the ocean, the high temperature and hotness throughout the year, and most of the land are desert areas, so it is also known as the “heart of Africa death.”
    Chaded into three major geographical areas: the desert areas in the north, belonging to the tropical desert climate; the dry Sahler area in the middle of the central part is a tropical grassland climate; Essence The country is named after Lake Chad. The highest domestic peak in China is the Cusai Mountain in Sahara, and the capital and the largest cities are Enjamona. There are more than 200 nations in Chad, French and Arabic are official languages, and Islam is the most religious religion.
    In AD 7000 BC, a large number of people have lived in Chad, until at the end of the first millennium BC, a series of regimes emerged and died in the Sahara area in Chad. route. Chad was occupied by France in 1920 and became part of French equatorial Africa. In 1960, Chad was independent of France under Franco Timbabaya, but Timbarbaya’s policy caused dissatisfaction in the northern Muslim region and eventually triggered a long -term civil war in 1965. In 1979, the anti -government armed forces captured Enjamener and ended the rule of the southern regime. However, the internal crickets occurred between the anti -government armed commanders. As a result, Hussein Habre won the battle and served as the president, but was overthrown by his general Idris Daiby in 1990. Recently, the Darfur conflict of Sudan broke out at the Chading border, which made the district unstable.
    Although there are many active parties in Chad, the patriotic rescue campaign led by President Idoris Daiby has firmly grasped power. At present, political violence and intention often occur in China. Chad is one of the worst countries in the world and the worst corruption. Since 2003, oil has replaced the traditional cotton industry and has become the main source of export income for Chad. On February 2, 2008, the rebels entered the capital Enja Merrine.

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